3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits

1. Introduction to Marine Geophysics: Historical development, Definition, scope, importance, limitation of marine Geophysics, Locating offshore observations. 2. Seabed imaging by Sonar and Lidar: Single beam echo-sounding, Swath Mapping, Side scan Sonar, Multi beam sounding 3. Seismic Exploration at Sea: Propagation of seismic waves, Seismic refraction method, Seismic reflection method, Seismic data acquisition at sea, Profiling algorithm. 4. Marine Gravity Field: Early gravity measurement in the sea, Gravimeters, Calculation of gravity anomalies, Areal and Satellite measurement. 5. The Earth’s Magnetic Field at Sea: The geomagnetic field, Magnetic field measurements over the sea, Total –field magnetic anomalies, Magnetics of rocks and sediments. 6. Heat Flow: Global heat flow, Measurement of heat flow of sea, Heat transfer and surface heat flow, Influence of heat flow at local scales, Regional heat flow variation. 7. Marine Geological Applications: Deep-sea Geophysics and the changing Geometry of the ocean, Studies of the Oceanic Lithosphere: The Sedimentary Cover, Studies of the Oceanic Lithosphere: The Crustal Basement and Upper Marine, Investigations of Divergent and Transform Continental Margins, Studies of Seduction Zones. Recommended Books 1. Marine Geophysics by E. J. W. Jones. 2. Exploration Seismology by R.E. Sheriff and L.P. Geldart. 3. Applied Geophysics by W.M. Telford, L.P. Geldart and R.E. Sheriff. 4. Principles and Applied Geophysics by D.S. Parasnis.