3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits

1. Marine Ecology: Definition, scope and type of ecology, Marine environment: General concepts, the open water, coastal water, the floor of the sea, Coastal habits: beaches, dunes & shingle, Islands, coral reef, salt marshes, sea grass and seaweeds, Concepts of Biodiversity: Definition, types, patterns, factors causing biodiversity loss. 2. Plankton: Phytoplankton and Zooplankton: Definition, Classification, Morphology, Importance, Occurrence, Distribution and Migration in the Bay of Bengal and major three oceans, Plankton collecting gears, Factors affecting the growth and abundance of Phytoplankton and zooplankton in the coastal and open water, Plankton dynamics: Nutrient and Phytoplankton, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Grazing, Phytoplankton bloom and niche dynamics, Tropic relationship of marine plankton, Primary productivity, Culture of phytoplankton and zooplankton, Theoretical ecology of plankton: Species coexistence, competitive exclusion principle, intermediate disturbance hypothesis, equal chance hypothesis 3. Benthos: Definition, Classification, Morphology, Importance of Benthos, General concept and importance of benthos in the ocean, Benthic communities and their distribution of seafloor, Benthic flora and fauna and their vertical stratification, aerobic and anaerobic organisms 4. Nekton: Definition, Distribution, Importance 5. Coral Reefs: Coral reef formation, Ecology, Types and distribution of coral reefs, Coral reefs and their relation to flora and fauna, Threats to corals 6. Mangroves: Mangrove biodiversity, productivity and fertility in the sea, Mangrove plantation, deforestation and forest conservation in the marine environment Recommended Books 1. Biological Oceanography by Charles B. Miller 2. Biological Oceanography: an Introduction by Carol Lalli and Timothy R. Parsons 3. Sea Life, A complete Guide to the Marine Environment by G. Waller 4. Introduction to the Physical and Biological Oceanography of Shelf Seas by John H. Simpson