3 Hours/Week, 3 Credits

1. Physical Properties of Sea Water: Pressure and depth, Accuracy and precision, Temperature and potential temperature, Heat budget, Concept of salinity, Electrical conductivity, Density, potential density and neutral density, Temperature- Salinity (T-S) diagram, Mixed layer depth (MLD) 2. Distribution of Temperature in Ocean: Surface distribution, Vertical distribution, Meridional distribution 3. Sound and Light in Sea Water: Propagation, attenuation, diffusion, extinction, Upwelling and downwelling of light, color of sea 4. Sea Ice: Freezing point and temperature of maximum density, effect of salinity, freezing in shallow seas and lakes, properties and types of sea ice 5. Water, Salt and Heat Budget and Flux: Hydrologic cycle, Conservation of Mass, Salt and Energy, Heat fluxes and heat balance 6. Ocean Wave: Classification of waves, Wave parameters, spectrum of surface waves, , Wind waves and swells, Wave theories: Small amplitude wave theory, Wave refraction, defraction and reflection 7. Astronomical Tides: Causes of tide: centrifugal force and gravitational attraction, tidal potential, Effects of sun-moon system on tide: distance, declination and mutation, diurnal inequality, Types of tide, Tidal datums 8. Ocean Current: Definition, Types, Causes, Major oceanic currents, oceanic gyre, Meso-scale eddies 9. Ocean Circulation: Wind driven surface circulation: wind stress, Coriolis force, Ekman's spiral and net transport, Vertical circulation: Upwelling and downwelling 10. Dynamics of Physical Oceanography: Classification of forces and types of motion in the sea, Kinematics of fluid flow, equation of continuity and applications, Equation of motion in oceanography 11. Ocean Sediment: Definition, Types and sediment dynamics Recommended Books 1. Introduction to Physical Oceanography by RH Stewart 2. Introduction to the Physical and Biological Oceanography of Shelf Seas by John H. Simpson 3. Introductory Dynamical Oceanography by Stephen Pond and George L. Pickard 4. The Atmosphere and Ocean: A physical Introduction by Neil C. Wells